Using the parallel branch of Fabric

January 06, 2011 at 06:50 PM | categories: Programming | View Comments

Changes and Notes

So I've updated the branch to add in a useful bit for the parallel decorator. I also need to talk out a few things related to it's use in the environment and some bugs or hiccups one might run into trying to use it. Hopefully I'll be hitting this up some more soon, and pulling some more of the crazy cool updates that people have been making to fabric trunk. I have a to-do list, let me know if you want me to add anything to it!

Additional feature

So there's always been a flag to make the pool size of the bubble, and that was nice, but I wanted a way to make these more permanent as well as simpler to remember. So it's now an option in the runs_parallel decorator. To use it you'd just simply give it a size to use:

#!/usr/bin/env python

from fabric.api import *

env.hosts = ['' % x for x in range(20)]

def poke():

This I feel makes a cleaner fabfile, and puts this information where it should be, in the code, and out of the writer's head.

How to use both ways, or just one

A big thing to note in using parallel tasks, is that anything put into shared variables, like env, is forgotten outside the execution of the one instance of the task. So if you don't add a @runs_once or @runs_sequential decorator to a task that say sets the env.hosts before an actual parallel task, the work done inside the env setting task is forgotten.

The reason adding these decorators addresses this, is that by adding them, the task isn't executed using the parallel bits. It is instead run inside the main fab process, and isn't creating a fork pool of size 1 and forgetting about it when the fork is finished executing.

So as an example, if one were to try and run a fabfile w/o setting up decorators for their functions, and running: fab -P set_hosts uptime

#!/usr/bin/env python

from fabric.api import env, local, run, sudo

env.hosts = ['']

def set_hosts():
    env.hosts = ['web-0', 'web-1']

def uptime():

They'd get into an issue where the set_hosts not being specifically set to run sequential or once, would have the settings it made to the env.hosts var only apply inside the task, since it's been forked out. Which would cause the uptime to only run on, and not both web-0 and web-1 as expected.

Fixing it

To get around this the tasks that need to set variable globally, and affect other tasks later will need to be decorated to not use forking. Below is the same fabfile tweaked to do so, as well as explicitly state how functions should behave.

Note that setting up a task to @runs_once will be backwards compatible, but @runs_parallel isn't. The added benefit to this being that one can drop using the -P flag, as neither task in this example can switch hit.

#!/usr/bin/env python

from fabric.api import *

#thanks to Eric who pointed this out, visit his site, it's neat
env.hosts = ['']

def set_hosts():
    env.hosts = ['web-0', 'web-1']

def uptime():

Maybe it'll help

As a boon to people using both the parallel branch and Trunk, on a single fabfile, note that which one is being used can be determined at runtime using some silly introspection:

>>> from fabric import decorators
>>> dir(decorators)
['StringTypes', '__builtins__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__name__',
'__package__', '_parallel', '_sequential', 'hosts', 'is_parallel',
'is_sequential', 'needs_multiprocessing', 'roles', 'runs_once',
'runs_parallel', 'runs_sequential', 'wraps']
>>> "runs_once" in dir(decorators)

So one could just flip a Boolean and decorate/use things accordingly. Though I suggest using @runs_once on any tasks that are just that, single shots that do stuff local, or set vars for the fabfile, and to reserve using @runs_sequential for tasks that still need to have multiple hosts, but need to not run side by side.

Bug outstanding

Finally there is a outstanding bug with use of this branch on windows,, that'll bite people. I'll try and work this out, but I'm a bad developer and am dragging my feet on having to install windows to debug this. But it's the new year so I'll make it a resolution, and we all know people never drop those.

I've updated this a bit since the first push of the post

Parallel execution with fabric

October 08, 2010 at 07:00 PM | categories: Programming | View Comments

It's been a wish for some for a long time

Since at least 07/21/2009 the desire to have fully parallel execution across hosts, or something similar to that. I stumbled upon the thread around March of this year. Being that I'd been using Fabric for a number of months at this point, and had recently made a script set for work stuff that leveraged multiprocessing I decided to give the issue a go.

What I implemented, and why

The short of it being that I made a data structure, Job_Queue that I feed fab tasks into and it will keep a running 'bubble' (works like a pool) of multiprocessing Processes going executing the Fabric tasks as they are able to do so. The job queue having a pool size as set by the user, or 1/2 the size of the host list if not specified, or if the pool size is larger than the host list size, it will match the host list size.

Why not threads?

Because they won't do what I want parallel execution in Fabric to accomplish. Namely

  • I can't be sure that the task is only IO bound as users can call anything as it 'just python', and the GIL will trip up fully parallel tasks.
  • With threads there is an issue noted in the docs about importing in threaded code which is something a user of Fabric is more than welcome to do.
  • The need for inter-process communication isn't there. Tasks are by their nature encapsulated, and don't talk to one another when being run.

OK so why not X instead?

There seems to have been a glut of good work done recently in the python ecosystem on getting around the issues people are having with the GIL. Some names that I can recall being Twisted, Tornado, pprocess, and PP. I am sure there are a lot more. There also the neat looking execnet project that offers direct communication to a python interpreter over an open socket.

Those got tossed out because they each have something that causes them to not fit some or all three requirements I gave modules to use.

  • Cross platform Win/Mac/Linux
  • Works on Python 2.5+
  • Is in the stdlib

All of those fail the last requirement, and granted it perhaps wouldn't be hard to get users to install yet another dep, but it is best to avoid things like that if at all possible. Keeps the moving parts down, and the issues you have to debug less foreign. Note though that the other two criteria I set could actually be met by any in list above, I am writing this much removed from my initial decision process.

So forks, why create a new Queue/Pool?


The multiprocessing module has a lot of really nice builtins that I attempted to leverage, but there really just wasn't a way to do what I needed to do with them. Queue was nice for having a list of Processes, but I needed a worker pool. Pool provided this, but then the workers were anonymous, and I wasn't able to set names as a cheap way to keep track of which host it was to run on.

So I had to make something up. That's what Job_Queue is for. All it does if take a load of Processes and then when the job queue is closed, one starts it, and off it goes. It'll make a bubble of a certain size that it will keep the number of currently running forks under, and will just move that bubble along the internal queue it had from the loading.

So it looks a bit like this:


The trickery comes in when in the fabric I set the of the Process to the host, and inside the queue I leverage this with:

env.host_string = =

Which will set the host for the task at run time, since otherwise Fabric would have gotten confused. It would have continued to iterate the same host, because of the shared state env and it's host list isn't really able to be progressed, because the forks aren't sharing it anymore, and are instead working in isolation from one another.

While that could have been a reason to use threads, or something like the Manager that multiprocessing offers, it's really the only time it comes up, and it keeps things a lot simper at the moment. Not to say that if someone is convincing enough I'd probably get behind a more robust solution.

What this branch adds to Fabric

There are new command flags for fab:

-P, --parallel        use the multiprocessing module to fork by hosts
-z FORKS, --pool-size=FORKS Set the number of forks to use in the pool.

I have also added two decorators:


These will allow a fab file command to be set to be run either in parallel or sequentially regardless of the fab command flag. Without these commands switch when the flag is set.

What that means is that any tasks that are decorated are always run as either parallel or sequential. Tasks that omit these decorators though, are going to be able to switch back and forth between running parallel or running sequentially. Something the user would be specifying at run time with the -P flag.

With the new stuff comes a few caveats

If you are interested in the guts, the implementation is in the file, and uses the Job_Queue class in the file. Note that this is only implemented in the fab command, as there is no way to determine how one will execute functions if they are using Fabric as a helper library.

If the runs_once decorator is being used on a function that is called from inside a fabric task, it won't be able to be honored. Because the states in the forks are separate, and every fork will think it's the first one to run the function. Simple solution being to make the call it's own task call.

Now to see it in use

Here is a little example of a fab file that is running some command on the server that will take 10 seconds to run. Yeah sleep is a bit of cheat for this, but it's good enough to show the benefit of forking out tasks that'd take a crap ton of time otherwise

from fabric.api import *
from server_list import servers

env.roledefs = servers.server_classes

def poke():
    run("sleep 10")

Running it

In parallel, as specified on the cli. Note that this is an example of not in using the decorators to set this in the code, so it as a task/function can toggle between being run in parallel or sequentially. There are 49 servers in the 'servers' list that I'm applying to this task.

$ time fab poke -P -z 20

real   0m45.868s
user   1m7.928s
sys    0m8.425s

Now the long runner. It takes ... forever.

$ time fab poke

real   8m51.477s
user   6m3.239s
sys    1m26.637s

The difference is pretty dramatic. We get a 8 min fab task dropped down to less than one min.

Just cause I though it was neat

This is a glimpse of what it'll look like in the process tree. Those are the forks running their tasks, and the children under them are the threads that bitprophet added into Fabric core for greatly improved stream handling.

$ pstree -paul
│   ├─bash,20062
│   │   └─fab,21455 /home/mgoose/.virtualenvs/fabric-merge/bin/fab poke -P -z 20
│   │       ├─fab,21462 /home/mgoose/.virtualenvs/fabric-merge/bin/fab poke -P -z 20
│   │       │   └─{fab},21493
│   │       ├─fab,21463 /home/mgoose/.virtualenvs/fabric-merge/bin/fab poke -P -z 20
│   │       │   ├─{fab},21484
│   │       │   ├─{fab},21505
│   │       │   ├─{fab},21511
│   │       │   └─{fab},21517
│   │       ├─fab,21464 /home/mgoose/.virtualenvs/fabric-merge/bin/fab poke -P -z 20
│   │       │   └─{fab},21487
│   │       ├─fab,21465 /home/mgoose/.virtualenvs/fabric-merge/bin/fab poke -P -z 20
│   │       │   ├─{fab},21483
│   │       │   ├─{fab},21502
│   │       │   ├─{fab},21503
│   │       │   └─{fab},21504
(16 more fab lines)

Use it and let me know

I'd love to hear how people are using this, and if they find any holes in my implementation. I've got a few more things I want/need to add into this, and I've got them listed in the github issues just until this gets integrated into the Fabric mainline.

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